The COVID-19 pandemic finds its basis in the epistemological error imperant in medicine and public health: To date, the obsolete and wrong deterministic-mechanistic paradigm used to cope with the pandemic implementing only biotechnology and profit is “Pathogen-infection- mortality risk” and not the right indeterministic multidimensional one:” Pathogen-anti-pathogen allostasis = antiviral metabolic allostasis and immunity stimulation -resilience- recovery.” the basis of Person-Centered Medicine that states that health is: ” The choice of the best possibilities for being the best human person.” Truth, freedom, and health are inseparable.

( Brera, G.R. Person-Centered Medicine and Person Centered Clinical Method. Milano: Università Ambrosiana ed.: 2021 ISBN: 9798726465432)

The error led to the omission of secondary prevention, which should have been based on research on the first 2002 SARS-COV and 2009 MERS disappeared without mass vaccination.

The error leads to the omission of secondary prevention in the oldest people at risk with comorbidities (93% of deaths).

Genotoxicity due to the silencing of mi-RNA to promoter genes by mRNA vaccines but to date has not yet been investigated in their epidemiological consequences. There is evidence of risk of mortality, cardiovascular and oncological morbidity after vaccination, and a high-risk index for adverse effects, including increased vulnerability to cancer, autoimmune diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. These data call for the immediate withdrawal of mRNA sera worldwide.

Immunodepression induced by multiple injections of mRNA vaccines has been demonstrated. In fact, after two doses, the unvaccinated are more protected from infection than the unvaccinated.

( Lancet: https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2822%2900089-7).

Moreover, there are no” large differences in the median duration of viral shedding among participants who were unvaccinated, those who were vaccinated but not boosted, and those who were vaccinated and boosted.” Duration of Shedding of Culturable Virus in SARS-CoV-2 Omicron…

These observations, along with the AB mRNA vaccines waning and the lack or weak presence of IGA in mucosae of upper respiratory ways, make the persecution made by some countries against prudent unvaccinated health professionals a delusion of illiterate governments that prescribed an obligement to vaccination.

Vectorial sera have a great probability of hybridizing human DNA and present risk of autoimmunity and induced cardiovascular pathologies up to death like mRNA.

There are other forms of prevention and easy treatment of COVID-19 in the early stages that make them useless. The state of Florida (USA), having found a risk of 2.3 for mortality in subjects vaccinated by mRNA sera with an 83% increase in mortality under 39 years, has prohibited them. Swede, Denmark, and Canada, respectively. didn’t recommend vaccination under 19-50-60 yo. The induction of children and young people’s vaccination is a crime against humanity motivated only by profit and power, as the Nobel prize Luc Montagnier agreed.

The 2002 SARS-VOC epidemics and the 2010 MERS have disappeared without mass vaccinations in a year. Mass vaccinations, in addition, in times of epidemic, select increasingly dangerous variants for the evasion of the immune system, an enormous business for BIG PHARMA.


This letter is intended to propose to Research Gate researchers a World Manifesto for the withdrawal of mRNA vaccines from the market as follows.:

“Researchers of the Research Gate, by highlighting the danger of mass vaccination and boosting with mRNA and vectorial sera for the world health people, make an appeal to governments for their withdrawal from the market and the withdrawal by governments of vaccination obligations. RG researchers, moreover, make an appeal to suspend any crazy suspension from the work of unvaccinated health professionals because of the lack of any scientific motivation and the result of governments’ illiteracy which led to a violation of human rights.”

Adherence to the World Manifesto takes place through adherence to this initiative in the discussion and mail to


, subscribing to the site and supporting this initiative if you agree.

Attend to the discussion on www.researchgate.net

Giuseppe R. Brera

President of the World Health Committee


President of the Italian National Health Committee


Director of the Milan School of Medicine





One treaty and a book demolished the global biotech policy against the COVID-19variants’ pandemics blessed by WHO  and piloted by the profit  BIG-PHARMA organizations  and introduced a new real and effective person-centered health global policy that induces the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases.herly, Christine Cotton highlighted omissions and the errors in mRNA vaccine experimentation that make these unreliable and dangerous for people.

Recently Seneff, S., Nigh, G., Kyriakopoulos, A. M., & McCullough, P. A. et al. highlighted the innate immune suppression by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations. In 2019  Lockhart J, Canfield J, Mong EF, Vanwye J, Totary-Jain H. highlighted the nucleotide modification  that alters microRNA-dependent   Silencing of MicroRNA switches. This last paper has been ignored by public health supporters of the global vaccination, involving children, adolescents, and young people not at epidemiological risk and submitted to severe and frequent adverse effects up to death.

Furtherly, vaccination of oncologic patients increases infections, hospitalizations, and deaths, confirming the mRNA vaccine immune-depression induction that adds it to the chemotherapy effects on immunity as highlighted by Wang W, Kaelber DC, Xu R, Berger NA

There is an urgent need in all countries to convert the health policy to adopting person-centered prevention based on the antiviral allostasis and preventive immunostimulation, as extensively highlighted by prof. Brera’s books are introduced here.

The public health assessors should be morally motivated to change health policy by adopting the paradigm change of Medicine: “Person-Centered Medicine.” if they want to be honest with people, a rare event of lighted people.




Author: Giuseppe R.Brera

Editor: University Ambrosiana

147 pages,  $ 28  

distributed worldwide by Amazon


The book introduces the Person-Centered Medicine theorized by Giuseppe R.Brera and taught at the Milan School of Medicine in PG medical education.

The book introduces the PCM paradigm and, step by step, the Person-Centered Clinical Method clinical application that has revolutionized the traditional clinical method only centered on empirical observations and clinical application results from its teaching to physicians.

The author introduces the Person-Centered Theory of Health Relativity and highlights the WHO’s epistemological error in the prevention policy of COVID-19.

In chapter 6; The SARS-COV 2 allostasis theory and the COVID-19 mechanic primary prevention failure, the result of a guilty omission of secondary prevention, the author introduces the SARS-COV 2 infection relativity   and “Complication probability theories” highlighting People and Person-Centered paradigm of prevention






19  July 1, 2021

Author: Giuseppe R.Brera

Editor: University Ambrosiana

Pag 125    $   25    

Distributed worldwide by Amazon


In the first part of the treatise, “The virus entry,”  the author had demonstrated how the SARS-COV 2 virus enters cells through pathological cell membranes characterized by lipid degeneration, thus explaining the vulnerability of the elderly with comorbidities that have atherosclerosis and protection against infection in young people as their common denominator. Adolescents and children are not subjected to immunosuppression due to a lack of alteration in the transduction of immune signals and the preserved validity of innate humoral and cellular immunity, verified by epidemiological research.

Professor Brera theorized an equation of relativity of the infection and probability theory of its severity, opening up a new perspective of prevention, capable of identifying subjects at risk of as severe COVID-19, intensive care, and death.


  1. SARS-COV 2- allostasis and the people and person-centered prevention.

 Part 2 The SARS-COV 2- induced  immunosuppression and covid-19 anergy

Part 3 The antiviral metabolic allostasis and preventive immunostimulation  -How to induce zero risk for covid-19.

 University Ambrosiana: 2021   332 pag.  611 references”

Author Giuseppe R.Brera

Editor: University Ambrosiana

Pag. 328   $ 50

Distributed worldwide by Amazon


In the second part of the treaty, the author deepened the new person-centered biochemical-immunological-virological perspective of viral allostasis that he had introduced. The author discusses the relationship between atherosclerosis, immunosuppression, and immune anergia in people at risk, leading to lethality.

The treaty completely falsifies the bio-tech prevention strategy addressed to multiple vaccinations of the elderly and in comorbidities with or without atherosclerosis. Immunosenescence and the immunosuppressive phenotype of atherosclerosis result in a reduction of induction of immune memory induced by non-proliferation and activation of T and B cells and induced cellular immunity, with waning immunity in a short time not protecting the lung and mucosal epithelium. The lethality of vaccinated older adults with comorbidities is on the news, and the natural immunity of children and young people, determining the lowest epidemiological risks and the mRNA adverse effects up to lethality, should have determined the choice to non-vaccinating them.

The treaty shows that the government’s policy of vaccinating young and oldest people with many shots is wrong at the epistemological and scientific levels. This policy requires a total change of preventive strategy and effective early care, moving to antiviral allostasis and preventive immunostimulation with the resignation of the public health organizers. In 2020-2021 millions of people’s deaths confirm the WHO’s and global policy failure. Wrong prevention and lethal strategy based on dangerous vaccines alter cells’ epigenetics by inducing micro-RNA suppression, immunity, depression, tumor vulnerability, and neurobiological alteration. There could be a relation between diplomacy failure in the Russia-Ukraine conflict and vaccines-induced brain alteration in European-NATO and world leaders.

Astra-Seneca’s vectorial Chimpanzees’ adenoviruses are in the DNA of many world leaders and diplomacy people, and micro RNA silencing by mRNA vaccines alters brains. The errors  and omissions in the  mRNA vaccines’ experimentation, well highlighted by Christine Cotton, furtherly introduce the permanence of the biotech addressed global policy against communicable diseases blessed by WHO as a profit-induced lethal fraud,

In the third part of the treatise, the author profoundly analyses the biochemical and immunological action (130 pages) of the potent antiviral and immuno-stimulant and immunogenic properties of an easy diet containing particular natural metabolites and nutraceutical supplements. The diet-induced antiviral allostasis cancels the risk of infection by Sars-COV 2 variants and many viruses, suggesting the validity of primary and secondary prevention based on antiviral allostasis and preventive immunostimulation through health education and self-care that would have led to the block of onset of the pandemic saving millions of lives-including 150,000 in Italy. “Antiviral allostasis” is a word unknown to public health organizers for epistemological ignorance of the healthy ministerial intelligence and world media virologists-immunologists, inducers of a new branch of criminality: “The virologists’ terrorism.”

The treatise theorizes the foundations of the antiviral strategy and preventive immunostimulation,  not only for SARS-COV 2 but for many other viruses and non-communicable diseases such as cancer that share in the first phase of infection metabolic alterations (1) of SARS-COV 2 and that the World Health Committee is launching in the world as the only possibility to prevent further epidemics. Mass vaccination induced the production of variants and immunity depression, as demonstrated by the epigenetic alterations caused by RNA vaccines transmitted to the offspring. These alterations pose challenging questions about the present and future effects on the brain and immunity and, therefore, on vulnerability to learning difficulties and mental health, tumors, and auto-immunity for DNA and hybridization by vectorial and mRNA vaccines

These irrefutable data present situations of obligation to the choice of vaccination and its imposition  (Green Pass),  the induction to the vaccination of children and adolescents-young, also cause of deaths- as an expression of a real illiterate and insane abuse of power.

The treatise-  is inspired by the Person-Centered Medicine change of paradigm of medical science, of which the author is the main inspirer in the world and lecturer at the Medical School of Milan.

In the introduction, Prof. Brera presents the conflict between a preventive-therapeutic biotechnological approach to the pandemic, only necessary tool but not the meaning of Medicine, and the person-centered change of paradigm of the concept of Medicine and Health,  to date defined as ” The choice of the best possibilities to be the best human person,” also political program, basis of the “Charte Mondiale de la Santé” – “The World Health Charter” presented in Milan in 2017.

The treaty lays the scientific foundations of the world health development program, called the ” People and Person-Centered Prevention Program,” promoted worldwide by the World Health Committee, and promotes the Person-Centered medicine paradigm spreading in public health.

The health policy promoted by the treaty is the exact opposite of health programs centered on “mechanistic-bio technological therapies and preventions,” which override man’s fundamental right to freedom to choose what is most appropriate for personal health. This strategy induced a criminal vaccination of children and adolescents, without an epidemiological justification, with specific and even fatal adverse effects, and states’ dependence on health merchants and vaccines,  interested in having a mass of chronic sufferers for profit reasons.

Members of the consortium of the multinational drug companies were also able to falsify scientific data to sell, as it appeared from the $250 million penalties given to Smith-Kline and Becham from the FDA in 2014 and present experimental programs of SARS-COV 2 vaccines of limited and wrong validity, omitting the study of adverse effects of vaccines.



by  I. Mazethes, WHC  editorial manager





Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Infections, Hospitalizations, and Mortality in Vaccinated Patients With Cancer


William Wang , David C. Kaelber; Rong Xu, et al in an article on JAMA  oncology on April 8,  have irrefutably highlighted that the mRNA vaccination anti COVID increases the rate of infection, hospitalization, and mortality in cancer patients.
The research, a retrospective cohort study on 2020-2021 vaccinated cancer patients,  in the USA, comparing 45 253 vaccinated cancer patients, with 12 common neoplastic diseases including hematological ones, with healthy vaccinated (total sample of vaccinated with two doses of Pfizer or Moderna n=636.435), showed a significant increase in infections, hospitalizations, and mortality in neoplastic patients.

“Among 45 253 vaccinated patients with cancer (mean [SD] age, 68.7 [12.4] years), 53.5% were female, 3.8% were Asian individuals, 15.4% were Black individuals, 4.9% were Hispanic individuals, and 74.1% were White individuals. Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with cancer increased from December 2020 to November 2021 and reached 52.1 new cases per 1000 persons in November 2021. The cumulative risk of breakthrough infections in patients with all cancer was 13.6%, with the highest risk for pancreatic (24.7%), liver (22.8%), lung (20.4%), and colorectal (17.5%) cancers, and the lowest risk for thyroid (10.3%), endometrial (11.9%), and breast (11.9%) cancers, vs 4.9% in the noncancer population (P < .001). Patients with cancer had significantly increased risk for breakthrough infections vs patients without cancer (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.19-1.29), with greatest risk for liver (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.38-2.29), lung (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.50-1.99), pancreatic (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.24-2.18), and colorectal (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.32-1.77) cancers and lowest risk for thyroid (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88-1.30) and skin (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.99-1.38) cancers. Patients who had medical encounters for cancer within the past year had higher risk for breakthrough infections than those who did not (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.31). Among patients with cancer, the overall risk for hospitalizations and mortality was 31.6% and 3.9%, respectively, in patients with breakthrough infections, vs 6.7% and 1.3% in those without breakthrough infections (HR for hospitalization: 13.48; 95% CI, 11.42-15.91; HR for mortality: 6.76; 95% CI, 4.97-9.20)”

The significant increase in infections, hospitalization and mortality in vaccinated cancer patients could be explained in a multifactorial way by the decrease in the immune capabilities of cancer patients due to chemotherapy and the inhibition of immunity made by mRNA vaccines due to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes ( P 53), by the inactivation of microRNAs and by the inhibition of MHC2 necessary for the activation of cellular immunity (e.g. cytotoxic lymphocytes).
The inhibition of immunity is therefore proportional to the number of doses of mRNA vaccines, and immunosenescence and is also caused by atherosclerotic comorbidities. mRNA vaccines expose the population to greater vulnerability to cancer, and infections as highlighted by prof. Giuseppe R. Brera, in his work on the genotoxicity of mRNA vaccines and in his treatise that introduced the antiviral Allostasis and the preventive Immunostimulation to prevent infections by variants of SARS-COV 2.

The only possibility for cancer patients and the population to prevent infections by variants of SARS-COV 2 and increase defenses against neoplasms is antiviral allostasis and preventive immunostimulation also active against all communicable diseases and cancer.


JM  WHC Editorial Manager




The Ambrosiana University has edited a treatise on SARS-COV 2 by Professor Giuseppe R.Brera, director of the Milan  School of Medicine  and president of the International Committee for the change of the paradigm of health and medicine. The treatise introduces into virology the revolutionary physiological concept of “Allostasis”, hitherto unknown to most virologists, clinicians and researchers, and recently the subject of an international conference on its importance for the paradigmatic change of medicine. The treatise, the first in the world, addresses the scientific and clinical approach to infection in a new multifactorial perspective, integrating the experimental and clinical investigations of SARS-COV and SARS-COV 2 in virology, immunology, epidemiology biochemistry. This impressive theoretical work on more than 1000 experimental and clinical investigations since 2002, forms the basis of a new approach to the pandemic called: “Person-Centered Prevention and Infection Early Treatment according to “Person-Centered Medicine”, which since 1999 has revolutionized medicine and medical science and since then taught at the School of Medicine in Milan.

In the treatise, Prof. Brera introduces the theory of relativity of virus entry into cells through an alteration of the membrane structure induced by cholesterol and the consequences, even fatal, of infection, due to atherosclerosis resulting in innate and adaptive immunity depression and an abnormal reaction induced by the immune phenotype to viral antigen stimuli. The theory explains the vulnerability of patients with co-morbidity characterized by atherosclerosis and the innate immune protection of children and young people (up to 30 ) who do not need any vaccination.

The entry of the virus into cells  is conditioned by the “lipid rafts” where the virus with the ACE 2 receptors and other transmigrates for endocytosis..

The signal deviation induced by LDL cholesterol in the “lipid rats” of atherosclerotic patients induces an immune phenotype favoring the fatal immune anergy after the seventh day easily detectable and preventable, strategy so far omitted with a fatal error of the WHO and most health governments of the countries, error paid by millions of people.

The theory of the relativity of SARS-COV 2 infection is crucial to change the prevention strategy and free humanity from the nightmare of SARS-COV 2 and its variants. It allows for the preventive detection of people vulnerable to infection and directs to primary and secondary prevention based on the reinforcement of immunity, a strategy omitted by the fatal ignorance of public health managers that caused more than a million deaths. Epistemological and scientific illiteracy has been paid by the world and Italian population but has been well supported and practiced by most of the world governments and the WHO. In Italy, this is the main cause of the request of the “National Health Committee” for determined action to induce the resignation of the Minister of Health Roberto Speranza.

The treatise was preceded by another book by the same author, Person-Centered Medicine and Person-Centered Clinical Method, the application of which leads to saving people’s suffering and the health costs of countries in a meaningful way as it appears from the data published in the book. Here the author also presented the epistemological basis of the new concept of health, and a chapter highlights the necessary pathways of entry of SARS-COV and the development of COVID-19 , also discussing the scientific probability of induction of cancer of vaccines against SARS-COV mRNA. This essay and the treatise are a crucial contribution to addressing any prevention and treatment of any pandemic, underpinning the strategy of the “Person-Centred Prevention Programme””, which orients public health to health promotion, education, health education, self-treatment and induced cross-prevention with other communicable and non-communicable diseases.

These books indicate that the most dangerous pandemic seems to be epistemological ignorance of the changing paradigm of Medicine..  This delay has led to a mono-dimensional, failed  virological approach to the pandemic, aimed only at inducing mechanistic prevention-wrong biotechnology and human rights violations and an economic failure of the countries that is causing the poverty of millions of people. The establishment by Europe and some European countries of a “Green Pass” for vaccinated people is without any scientific foundation because vaccination does not prevent infections and contagion.  Vice versa,  from 2002 to 2020, the multinational vaccines have not produced any vaccine because of the frequent mutations of the virus. The theory of relativity SARS-COV 2 refutes the erroneous mechanistic-determinist  and linear causality model, in coping to COVID-19 promoted by the WHO and many countries, omitting secondary prevention. This wrong approach caused more than a million deaths because it pushed primary prevention only to biotechnological measures, excluding people’s health education to an immuno-empowering and anti-viral quality of life. This omission based on ignorance gets to expose children and young people, completely protected by innate immunity, or elderly immunosenescent, with innate and adaptive immunity depression, to experimental vaccines with limited validity over time and completely useless against variants, with short and long-term risks of adverse effects until death.

The treatise is edited at the same time as the International Conference: for the 26th anniversary of the opening of the Ambrosiana University:

The paradigm shift centered on the person’s health and medicine paradigms and COVID-19

where the most significant  scientists contributors of the paradigms change of medicine and health explained the scientific basis of the transition from the dominant deterministic and one-dimensional paradigm-mechanistic to the new and its omission related to the development of the SARS-COV 2 pandemic.




Giuseppe R.Brera :Sars-Cov 2 allostasis and people and prevention centered on the person-A new prevention strategy based on the induction of people’s metabolic and immune shield for pandemic arrest COVID-19″ 632 p. – 1065 references.

First part: “The relativity of SARS-COV 2 entry and COVID 19 138 pp. euro 30 e-book and printed ISBN: 9798530093906


Giuseppe R.Brera: Person-Centered Medicine and Person-Centered Clinical Method- practical results of the paradigm of unitary medicine and the theory of prevention COVID-19 people and person-centered” – 131 p. -132 references euro 17 – e-book and print ISBN: 9798726465432


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Scientific evidence of anti -COVID 19 mRNA and vectorial  vaccines genotoxicity inducing tumors and psycho-neuro-behavioral disorders

  • November 2021


. Micro-RNAs (miR) are non-coding RNA filaments that control mRNA transcription. Micro-RNAs have been studied in cancer pathogenesis, metastasization, cancer therapy, the structuring of the central nervous system, diabetes, and heart disease.   Mir-134-138 regulate the development of dendritic spines needed for synapses. Their silencing can lead to autistic spectrum disorders and mental retardation and damage to brains in evolution such as childhood and adolescence, producing learning problems and mood problems, and in adults for alterations of receptors for neurotransmission.  It has been shown that N1-methyl pseudouridine binds to miR and induces silencing processes, increasing cell methylome at the origin of cancer. The production of mRNA vaccines replaces Uridine with N1-methyl-pseudouridine to escape innate immunity and implement rapid translation. N1-methyl-pseudouridine  binding with mi-RNA alters the epigenetic transcription of oncosuppressor that, with the increase in cell methylation, could result in the induction of tumors and relapses, natural immunity inhibition, and neuro-behavioral disorders transmissible to progeny. Vectorial vaccines hybridize the host DNA with adenoviruses and induce tumors at the experimental level. Clinical reports and long-term epidemiological investigations are necessary to verify the impact of mRNA vaccines on health.

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Inaugural Conference of  the 2020-2021  academic activities of Ambrosiana University



The Person-Centered Prevention Program  for pandemic prevention



Person-Centred Medicine (PCM) is the current paradigm of medical science and Medicine, and this involves the orientation of public health with a new organization of primary care and the training of doctors and students in Medicine through teachers prepared for PCM teaching. Its application, through trained doctors, allows enormous savings in suffering and costs. The PCM reconverts health to “Person-centred prevention” by promoting health education, prevention, early treatment of diseases, self-care, incentivizing individual resources, introducing and reinforcing protective factors, and buffering risk factors to improve individual resilience.
The PCM paradigm is defined as” The choice of the best possibilities for being the best human person,” which is also a political program.
In adolescence, a period of spiritual and psycho-biological formation, the PCM assumes fundamental importance throughout life because it builds an indelible trace for the future.
The Congress is held in three parts: the first is dedicated to the scientific bases of the Person-Centered Medicine interactionist and teleonomic paradigm, which will be followed by a panel dedicated to the paradigm change of Medicine. (in English) -November 13
Keynote speakers: Peter Sterling, the author of the Allostasis theory that revolutionized physiology and medical science, the fundament of the Person-Centered Medicine paradigm with other significant contributors to Medicine paradigm change .(November 13- h 15)
The second session is dedicated to adolescence. Speakers are contributors to the revolution of the paradigm of the adolescence theory. (November 13- 17,30-19,30)
The third session is dedicated to the Person-Centered Prevention paradigm, genetic and epigenetic damages induced by vaccines against SARS-COV 2, and early treatment of COVID-19.
( November 20 – h 15 in Italian-English)
Giuseppe R.Brera
Rector of the Ambrosiana University, Director of the Medical School of Milan, president of the World Health Committee and the Italian National Health Committee
Free access on zoom on registration
To give a contribution to the conference in panels (5-7′) send the enclosed abstract form to scientificsecretariat@unambro.it dr. Vito Galante within 7 November (1°-2° session, November 13 -3°session)

The conundrum of current anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines


The conundrum of current anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines

Maurizio Federico


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has given rise to the urgent need for vaccines and therapeutic interventions to address the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development, and those being distributed currently, have been designed to induce neutralizing antibodies using the spike protein of the virus as an immunogen. However, the immunological correlates of protection against the virus remain unknown. This raises questions about the efficacy of current vaccination strategies. In addition, safety profiles of several vaccines seem inadequate or have not yet been evaluated under controlled experimentation. Here, evidence from the literature regarding the efforts already made to identify the immunological correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection are summarized. Furthermore, key biological features of most of the advanced vaccines and considerations regarding their safety and expected efficacy are highlighted.

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